Diamond hypothesized that at least part of the answer was increasing levels of dopamine in PFC. Researchers and clinicians working on inborn errors of metabolism had noticed that children well-treated for phenylketonuria (PKU) seemed to show selective EF deficits, but no one could imagine a mechanism that could explain that, so reports of such deficits were largely ignored. Normal development of prefrontal cortex from birth to young adulthood: Cognitive functions, anatomy, and biochemistry.
We hope our research might fundamentally change the approach and underlying assumptions (i.e., shift the paradigm) of how to improve cognitive skills and how to educate children. Diamond realized that the latter might provide a mechanism to account for the former because children well-treated for PKU typically had slightly elevated blood levels of phenylalanine (Phe) and slightly reduced blood levels of tyrosine. Sorting between theories of perseveration: Performance in conflict tasks requires memory, attention, and inhibition [Response]. doi:10.1111/1467-7687.00300 (abstract) (pdf) Diamond, A., Lee, E-Y., & Hayden, M. Early success in using the relation between stimulus and reward to deduce an abstract rule: Perceived physical connectedness is key. doi:10.1037/0012-16126.96.36.1995 PMID:12952397 (abstract) (pdf) Diamond, A., Kirkham , N. Since Phe and tyrosine compete to enter the brain, a modest elevation in the Phe to tyrosine ratio in blood would result in a modest reduction in the amount of tyrosine reaching the brain a reduction sufficient to impact PFC but too small to impact other brain regions. Adele Diamond Canada Research Chair in Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Department of Psychiatry University of British Columbia (UBC) 2255 Wesbrook Mall, Room G842 Vancouver, BC V6T 2A1 Canada Head, Program in Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Dept. We propose that one mechanism for the impact of poverty on cognitive development may be through delayed or impaired executive control functions (e.g., working memory & selective attention, more specifically through an impairment in inhibitory executive control functions), and we will investigate this bringing together five disciplines—behavioral neuroscience, epidemiology, child development, neuropsychology, and economics. Graduate course (EPSE 553: Theories of Cognitive Abilities), Dept. (This is the highest award that society gives.) (Aug.)Keynote Address: Increasing Mindfulness and Self-awareness in Children with Disorders of Executive Function, a joint conference of the Univ. of Pediatrics, the Center for Autism & Neurodevelopmental Disorders, the Chapman U. Afternoon Session of Conference on Early Trauma - Impact upon Brain and Psychological Development: Mechanisms and Interventions. of Psychiatry, UBC (2008- ) Founding Fellow, Institute of Mental Health, UBC (2006-) Member, Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Undergraduate Program in Cognitive Systems, Centre for Brain Health, UBC the Human Early Learning Partnership (HELP) Child and Family Research Institute Neuro Dev Net, a Network of Centres of Excellence (NCE) dedicated to helping children overcome neurodevelopmental disorders Faculty Fellow, Green College at UBC (2007-2009) Founding Member, CIRCA (Centre for Interdisciplinary Research and Collaboration in Autism) at UBC (2010- ) [up] [home] Adele Diamond is the Canada Research Chair Professor of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver. of Educational and Counselling Psychology, and Special Education, Faculty of Education, UBC. Abilities Project, the Orange County Health Care Agency, and the Orange County Dept.